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Metro - logy - The Science Of Weights And Measures Volume 2!
Yesterday I posted volume 1 on linear measures. Tonight, volume 2 is about dry measures of capacities. I didn't realize how much Scripture told us about measurements. God created everything, so why shouldn't word contain it all. Most everything we need to know in life occurs in the Bible.
Dry Measures of Capacity. Dry measures of capacity are given below in ascending order of size. Note that some dry measures are also used as liquid measures.
Handful (Heb. qomes, Lev 2:2; 5:12). Probably never brought to any greater accuracy than the natural capacity of the human hand. It was also used as a liquid measure.
2 and take it to Aaron's sons the priests. The priest shall take a handful of the fine flour and oil, together with all the incense, and burn this as a memorial portion on the altar, an offering made by fire, an aroma pleasing to the LORD. NIV
12 He is to bring it to the priest, who shall take a handful of it as a memorial portion and burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made to the LORD by fire. It is a sin offering. NIV
Kab (Heb. qab, "hollow," 2 Kings 6:25). This was, according to the rabbis, equal to one-sixth of a seah (see below). It is equal to about two quarts.
2 Kings 6:25
25 There was a great famine in the city; the siege lasted so long that a donkey's head sold for eighty shekels of silver, and a quarter of a cab of seed pods for five shekels. NIV
Omer (Heb. `omer, a "heap," Ex 16:16-36; "sheaf," Lev 23:10). An ancient Hebrew measure. Its relative value was one-tenth of an ephah (Ex 16:36), and it held about 5.1 pints. It contained the portion of manna assigned each individual for his daily food (16:16-20).
16 This is what the LORD has commanded: 'Each one is to gather as much as he needs. Take an omer for each person you have in your tent.'"
17 The Israelites did as they were told; some gathered much, some little. 18 And when they measured it by the omer, he who gathered much did not have too much, and he who gathered little did not have too little. Each one gathered as much as he needed.
19 Then Moses said to them, "No one is to keep any of it until morning."
20 However, some of them paid no attention to Moses; they kept part of it until morning, but it was full of maggots and began to smell. So Moses was angry with them.
21 Each morning everyone gathered as much as he needed, and when the sun grew hot, it melted away. 22 On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much — two omers for each person — and the leaders of the community came and reported this to Moses. 23 He said to them,
32 Moses said, "This is what the LORD has commanded: 'Take an omer of manna and keep it for the generations to come, so they can see the bread I gave you to eat in the desert when I brought you out of Egypt.'"
33 So Moses said to Aaron, "Take a jar and put an omer of manna in it. Then place it before the LORD to be kept for the generations to come." 36(An omer is one tenth of an ephah.) NIV
10 "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest. NIV
36(An omer is one tenth of an ephah.) NIV
Seah (Heb. se'a, "measure"; rendered "measure" in Gen 18:6; 1 Sam 25:18; 2 Kings 7:16,18; ephah, Judg 6:19). It was a common household measure. According to the rabbis, it was equal to one-third of an ephah and was, perhaps, identical with "measure," `shalish, in Isa 40:12.
6 So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah. "Quick," he said, "get three seahs of fine flour and knead it and bake some bread." NIV
1 Sam 25:18
18 Abigail lost no time. She took two hundred loaves of bread, two skins of wine, five dressed sheep, five seahs of roasted grain, a hundred cakes of raisins and two hundred cakes of pressed figs, and loaded them on donkeys. NIV
2 Kings 7:15-18
16 Then the people went out and plundered the camp of the Arameans. So a seah of flour sold for a shekel, and two seahs of barley sold for a shekel, as the LORD had said.18 It happened as the man of God had said to the king: "About this time tomorrow, a seah of flour will sell for a shekel and two seahs of barley for a shekel at the gate of Samaria." NIV
Ephah (Heb. 'epa). A measure of Egyptian origin and in very common use among the Hebrews. It contained ten omers (Ex 16:36), about three pecks and three pints, and was equivalent in capacity to the liquid measure, bat. According to Josephus (Ant. 8.2.9), the ephah contained seventy-two sextarii.
36(An omer is one tenth of an ephah.) NIV
Bushel. Though the bushel appears in the KJV, NIV, and NASB, there was no exact equivalent to the bushel in ancient times. The term appears in the NASB of Amos 8:5 to replace KJV "ephah." It appears in the KJV of Matt 5:15; Mark 4:21; Luke 11:33, and in those verses is replaced in the NASB with "peck-measure." It appears in the NIV in Luke 16:7 in place of NASB "measures." See Homer.
15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. KJV
Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? KJV
33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light. KJV
7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore. KJV
Homer (Heb. homer, "heap," Lev 27:16; Num 11:32; Ezek 45:13; kor, 1 Kings 4:22; 5:11; 2 Chron 2:10; 27:5; Grk. koros, "measure," Luke 16:7, see marg.). According to Fuerst, the homer was originally a donkey load and hence a measure of like capacity. It was supposed to have been called kor because of its being a circular measure. The homer contained ten ephahs (Ezek 45:11), nearly eight bushels. The half-homer was known as lethek (see Hos 3:2).
16 And if a man shall sanctify unto the LORD some part of a field of his possession, then thy estimation shall be according to the seed thereof: an homer of barley seed shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver. KJV
32 And the people stood up all that day, and all that night, and all the next day, and they gathered the quails: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp.KJV
Conclusion:Amazing how these things enrich our understanding of God's word. When we know the measurements of what is being discussed , we can envision what things really look like. I have posted, first, linear measures and then tonight, dry measures. The next blog will discuss liquid measures, and weight measures. As I stated in the first Metro-logy, you might want to print these out so that you can quickly look these measurements up when you are reading God's word. Just a little more enriching of God's word.
2 Cor 5:17
17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! NIV
In Christ's Name,
Rev. Zack Martin Sr.